Cyber risk derives from an integrated ecosystem that requires assessments of information technology systems, defences, human factors, attacker tactics and incentives, the larger political context, and many other considerations. Cyber risk is complex, adaptive, sentient, high tech. Nearly all companies are under constant surveillance and assault from threat actors. Cyber is the domain of both criminals and nation state actors, and as the world becomes cyber physical more and more critical assets stand at risk.

How can it be measured?

At its core, this is a human system that can be measured probabilistically with the right expertise, data and the right tools.

Amid all the uncertainty lies an overall landscape that behaves like an evolving economy with rapid technology diffusion rates. The ecosystem is comprised of humans following incentive structures, which admits of moving equilibria. A huge amount of available data and information is available to simulate this economy and generate reliable, probabilistic predictions.

Where human expertise meets best-in-class analytics

Beyond cyber expertise, our modelling and simulation team includes experts trained in complex domains like national security and intelligence, space vehicles, aircraft, off-shore oil platforms, and brain-computer interfaces.

Our underwriters are veterans in the cyber market with deep quantitative backgrounds to complement underwriting skills.

We seek smarter underwriting decisions that outperform the market and deliver customer value.

Envelop Risk - risk analysis

Risk analysis

Measurements of impact of risks and their potential evolution over time

Envelop risk - pricing


Risk-based, competitive, AI-driven pricing.

Envelop risk - portfolio management

Portfolio management

Sophisticated portfolio management and aggregation tools

Envelop Risk - underwriting centred

Underwriting centred

Everything we do is risk and portfolio focused

Modelling and simulation

Technology with the power to tackle more complex risks

Cyber risk is complex, sentient and high tech. It’s constantly evolving – and constantly adapting to the defences designed to stop it in its tracks. While it’s hard to predict individual cyber attacks with any degree of certainty, we have the industry expertise to study and analyse the economic and political spheres that underpin the cyber ecosystem as a whole.

Envelop Risk - the companyEnvelop Risk - the company

The company

Policies and contracts
Web and social media presence

Envelop Risk - the risk landscapeEnvelop Risk - the risk landscape

The risks

Threat landscape monitoring
News and social media feeds
Scenarios and tail modelling

Envelop Risk - history and trendsEnvelop Risk - history and trends

History, trends
and forecasts

Cyber event history
Claims history
Portfolio performance
Human expert feedback
New shocks

Envelop Risk defencesEnvelop Risk defences

The defences

Tech stack
Vulnerability management
Patching cadence and behaviour

Cyber-Tooth, our proprietary machine-learning model, assesses over a million companies, their defences, current attacker activity, and historical attack trends. For each individual company, we examine the nature and financial value of its assets, and the extent of its vulnerability to different types of attacks. We compare that data against emerging and historical attack trends to predict expected losses – establishing a rigorous basis for recommended insurance and reinsurance pricing.

Cyber-Tooth by numbers

2,000+ raw attributes per company
Envelop Risk insurance policies
3M+ ingested insurance policies providing real data for assessing losses by coverage area
Envelop Risk Machine learning models
20+ machine-learning models simulating seven distinct elements of insured risk
Envelop Risk losses per report
10 billion+ losses per report

Our globally-unique dataset on claims and historical performance underpins the unparalleled accuracy of our modelling

Our model ingests more than 2,000 raw attributes per company and more than 1,000 datasets to evaluate risk.

The model simulates more than 10 billion losses per report, tracked across 80 attributes, representing about 100 terabytes of data and 10 trillion calculations per simulation. It deploys over 20 machine-learning models to simulate seven distinct components of insured risk:



Loss type/attack path

Disaster scenarios

Coverage areas

Policy terms

Portfolio performance

Cyber-Tooth’s outputs

Because we hold our proprietary model in house, our underwriters and capital partners benefit from complete transparency into CyberTooth’s operations and functionality. Our modelling capability enables us to deliver detailed assessments of:

Exceedance probability

Occurrence/annual exceedance probability

Gross loss tables

Correlated risks

Losses by coverage area

Probable maximum loss

Tail value at risk

Realistic disaster scenarios